Tucker and his one-time top business lawyer Timothy Muir, also arrested, exploited over 4.5 million people in the United States who were struggling to pay basic living expenses. Tucker and Muir received complaints from thousands of consumers, state regulators and consumer protection groups. The lending scheme operated from 1997 through August 2013, generating over $2 billion in revenues from 2003 to 2012 alone and providing Tucker with hundreds of millions of dollars in profits. Tucker spent a lot of money to buy luxury homes and cars, jewelry, a private airplane and the expenses of a professional auto racing team. Various states, including New York state and the District of Columbia, ban payday loans or have usury limits that effectively prohibit them. Tucker claimed the payday lenders were protected by “tribal sovereign immunity” after he entered sham business relationships with three Indian tribes.