And it was also better explained: “This is necessary to defend the integrity of our tax system; to provide tax certainty to business; and to challenge the encroachment of EU state aid rules into the sovereign member state competence of taxation.” The 13 billion euros represents about 6 percent of the Apple’s cash pile. The company reacted. Apple said in a statement it was confident of winning an appeal and argued their opposition issuing a warning in the background: “The European Commission has launched an effort to rewrite Apple’s history in Europe, ignore Ireland’s tax laws and upend the international tax system in the process. The Commission’s case is not about how much Apple pays in taxes, it’s about which government collects the money. It will have a profound and harmful effect on investment and job creation in Europe.” Ireland’s low corporate tax rate has been a cornerstone of economic policy for 20 years.