A rare type of galaxy known as a ring galaxy was discovered. It is called R5519, and it's the first collisional ring galaxy ever found more than a few hundred light-years away , which makes it the only known such object in the early Universe.
The hole punched through the middle is about 17,612 light-years across, with no detectable trace of the star-packed bulge that normally fills a galactic center. There are two kinds of ring galaxies. The more common type forms because of internal processes. Collisional ones for - as the name suggests - as a result of immense and violent encounters with other galaxies. R5519 exhibits a high rate of star formation in its ring; around 80 solar masses' worth of new stars are born every year.
The discovery of R5519 10.8 billion light-years away seems to support the idea that discs weren't that rare in the early Universe after all. This discovery is an indication that disc assembly in spiral galaxies occurred over a more extended period than previously thought. In the local Universe, ring galaxies of this type are extremely rare - 1,000 times rarer than ring galaxies formed by less violent processes. It also offers an opportunity to study the formation of disc galaxies like the Milky Way.