China's Chang'e-4 mission, the first to land on the far side of the moon, which landed in the Von Karman crater on January 3, used the rover Yutu-2 and found traces of olivine.
Samples from deeper impacts within the basin revealed more olivine. It seems to be the profile of rocks from the lunar mantle. The new research may be the best look yet at the second layer of Earth’s natural satellite, which remains largely mysterious. The results could now help scientists understand the chemical and mineralogical composition of the mantle, which could shed light on the origins and evolution of the Moon itself. Patrick Pinet, from the Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology (IRAP) in Toulouse, France, called the results "thrilling."
Rocks on the landing area
More exploration will be needed to validate the results.The Chinese scientists have raised the possibility of sending another mission to deliver some of them to Earth for study in laboratories. Planetary scientists suspect that the moon formed when an enormous impact threw huge amounts of material off of the early Earth. In the moon's early days, the satellite's entire surface would have been a molten magma ocean.