The Mystery of Volcano


The word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, the name of a god of fire in Roman mythology. It is one of the most important natural disasters in any planet. Volcanoes have played an important part in the development of earth and affecting the geography by providing water, atmospheric gas, and other essential materials/nutrients to the environment.


At the time of the formation of any planet it had huge amount hot material called magma. From time to time the upper site of that magma became hard and made the surface but in the deep of the planet there is still magma. Magma, rising from the deep of the planet gathers in a weak portion of the rock called. It is called the magma chamber. When a strong earthquake occurs, the mantle plume a bubble of material which rises to the surface layers from the deep interior of the planet increasing the temperature and pushes the magma gathered in the weak magma chamber on to the surface.

This erupting magma creates the volcano. When magma is erupted onto the surface in the form of lava, it becomes silicate rock. On instance the eruptions of the volcano, magma leaves the chamber composed of slightly different chemicals. Volcanoes are classified into many categories according to their trait. Volcanoes are hazardous to wildlife and humans beings.

Mount St. Helens eruption in 1980 caused a heavy ash fall. On that ash fall most of the area was covered with the poisonous ash of the volcano. Without ashes volcano also emit poisonous gases like sulfur- dioxide, which mixes with the water vapor and creates the sulfuric acid. The next result of this is the acid rain. Ashes only emit in the time of eruption but the emission of gases stay alive after the volcano.

These poisonous gases emit from the cracks of the planet. Among these Lava is the deadliest part of any volcano. The flows of mud, rock, and water travel down to the flank. They move down at a high speed of 20 mph to 40 mph. Some of the most extreme cases have lahars with a consistency of wet concrete flowing up to 50 miles. They destroy houses, trees, and huge boulders like a flood. Volcanoes are useful too. The soil around the volcano is very fertile due to the materials from the lava flowing down the volcano. It also brings out valuable materials from the deep of the earth. Though volcano has many advantage and disadvantage, scientists are still craving for finding out the mystery of volcano.


SEPA fines ExxonMobil ‘record’ £2.8m over carbon emissions

The energy giant was slapped with a massive fine of £2.8m due to the failure to report co2 emissions from one of its chemical plants in Fife by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA). A “sharp mistake of breath” turned out to be a costly one for the oil giant. The fine is now the largest financial penalty enforced for an environmental wrongdoing in the history of Britain.

SEPA says the fine was imposed under ‘Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme Regulations’ and it was an obligatory penalty for breaking ‘EU Emissions Trading Scheme’.

In 2008 in a report SEPA said that the company failed to mention emissions of about 33,000 tones of carbon dioxide from its chemical plant in Mosmorran and the fine was issued by SEPA in 2011.

SEPA spokesman said that the ExxonMobil case was charged for a reporting mistake, and the punishment was a compulsory consequence of breaking the ‘EU Emissions Trading Scheme Regulations’. He also stated the fact this wasn’t a prosecution case as no direct harm was caused to environment by ExxonMobil’s error. And that’s why SEPA did not launch a thorough investigation. 

ExxonMobil regretted for their misconduct and took full responsibility. Spokesman for ExxonMobil said that the company deeply regretted the mistakes made related to the reports of co2 emissions under the ‘European Union Emissions Trading System’.

ExxonMobil considers the alarming increasing rate of greenhouse gas emission as a serious threat to mankind and also worthy of taking take action against.

Director of WWF Scotland’s, Richard Dixon said that it’s awfully embarrassing for a highly resourced company like ExxonMobil to admit their incapability to fill up a simple form and get fined almost £3 million for the mistake.

He also said that in the past there had been other examples of companies under-reporting their involvement in climate changing. ‘European Trading Scheme’ was created to limit the pollution from industries and bring companies in a leash. So it’s quite right that the fine should be high for breaking the law. 

He hoped that from now on ExxonMobil will be careful reporting the right data and this huge fine would be a message to other companies.

Details of this incident were only published in an enforcement report of SEPA, later uncovered by an environmental journal. Environmental groups said that this large scaled fine should have been broadcasted more widely to reveal the negligence of the oil companies.

The fine money has been given to the government of Scotland

and it will be spent for several environment projects.