The case was reported on Wednesday in The New England Journal of Medicine and the new diagnosis method was revealed. Researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, used sequencing DNA to identify pathogens. To identify a pathogen, the researchers extracted every scrap of DNA in a sample from the patient. A software that rapidly compares DNA fragments with genetic sequences stored in online databases was previously developed and this helped to do the analysis in only 48 hours. After deciphering the sequences of three million fragments of DNA present in Joshua’s samples, the pathogen identified was a potentially lethal type of bacteria called Leptospira, sensitive at penicillin. A project to develop a DNA-based test for diagnosing the causes of encephalitis and other life-threatening conditions was started. These tests can be a part of standard practice in diagnosis in the future. Some aspects must be first scientifically clarified. It would take years of further research before such a test might become approved for the regular use. But this is a great new way in the science of diagnosis for the years to come.